This is in addition to employees of the government in the civil service and in local government as well as public bodies and corporations. Farms tend to cover larger areas than their European counterparts. Catriona M. M. MacDonald, and E. W. McFarland, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Cabinet Secretary for Finance, Constitution and Economy, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Government Expenditure and Revenue Scotland, Scottish Council for Development and Industry, "Regional economic activity by gross domestic product", "Quarterly National Accounts Scotland, 2018 Quarter 1, "Population Below Poverty Line - CIA World Factbook", "Living standards, poverty and inequality in the UK: 2012", "Regional labour market statistics in the UK: March 2019", "Ease of Doing Business in United Kingdom", "A survey of the liberalisation of public enterprises in the UK since 1979", "Privatization â Reviving the Momentum", "Revisiting State and Market through Regulatory Governance: Observations of Privatisation, Partnerships, Politics and Performance", "Global reserves, dollar share up at end of 2007-IMF", "Acts of Union: The creation of the United Kingdom", How the Scots Invented the Modern World: The True Story of How Western Europe's Poorest Nation Created Our World & Everything in It, https://www.struttandparker.com/knowledge-and-research/explaining-the-rise-in-price-of-scottish-arable-land, Fisheries Research Services The Changing Abundance of Spring Salmon, "Second City of The Empire: 1830s to 1914", "Industrial decline â the 20th Century", "Scotch Whisky Exports & Visitor Numbers Soar", "Letter of five Scots to Gdansk City Council with request for citizenship, dated 1594", Scottish Enterprise â Textile Industry, Facts and Figures, "The Economic Value of the Housebuilding Industry in Scotland", "Scots Cities Slide down Chart of the World's Top Financial Centres", Scottish Financial Enterprise Industry Overview, Scottish Financial Enterprise â Financial Industry Overview, Parliamentary Business : Scottish Parliament, "Standard Life, last of the Scottish mutuals, presides over Edinburgh's changing scene", Overview of the Scottish Financial Industry, Longannet power station closes 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Sector Employment in Scotland 2005, "Scottish Labour leader contender targets high earners with tax plan", https://www.mygov.scot/scottish-welfare-fund/, https://www.gov.scot/policies/public-sector-procurement/fair-work-in-procurement/, https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1982/45/part/III, https://www.mygov.scot/renting-your-property-out/your-responsibilities/, https://www.gov.scot/policies/local-government/non-domestic-rates/, https://www.gov.scot/news/right-to-buy-ends-in-scotland/, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-23155904, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/17/Edinburgh_-_Edinburgh%2C_86_Canongate%2C_Milton_House_School_-_20140421115556.jpg, Scottish Enterprise North East Scotland Area Information, https://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Workforce/Publications/2018-06-05/2018-06-05-Workforce-Report.pdf, http://data.sssc.uk.com/images/WDR/WDR2017.pdf, http://www.parliament.scot/ResearchBriefingsAndFactsheets/S5/SB_16-100_The_National_Health_Service_in_Scotland.pdf, https://www.gov.scot/publications/free-personal-nursing-care-qa/, https://www.gov.scot/news/expansion-of-free-personal-care/, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-48438132, https://www.nhs.uk/common-health-questions/nhs-services-and-treatments/how-much-nhs-prescription-charge/, https://www.nhsinform.scot/care-support-and-rights/nhs-services/dental/receiving-nhs-dental-treatment-in-scotland#dental-treatment-costs, https://www.nhsinform.scot/care-support-and-rights/nhs-services/ophthalmics/your-entitlements-to-nhs-ophthalmic-services, https://www.gcph.co.uk/publications/635_history_politics_and_vulnerability_explaining_excess_mortality, https://www.scotland.police.uk/assets/pdf/138327/212520/police-scotland-officer-numbers-quarter-4-31st-december-2019?view=Standard, British Chambers of Commerce Quarterly Economic Survey, The "Top Secret" 1974 Gavin McCrone Report into Scotland's Economy â classified, The "Top Secret" 1974 Gavin McCrone Report into Scotland's Economy â unclassified, Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, Second Industrial Revolution 1860sâ1914, Glasgow International Financial Services District, Economic and Financial Affairs Commissioner, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Economy_of_Scotland&oldid=992956494, Articles with dead external links from December 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from March 2016, All articles needing additional references, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from February 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2013, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2014, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Â£2,480 / â¬3,373 / $3,814 monthly (2014), Â£1,730 / â¬2,064 / $2,793 monthly (2011), Fishing, Food & Drink, Forestry, Oil & Gas, Renewable Energy, Textiles, Tourism, Fish, Confectionery, Oil & Gas, Renewable Energy, Scotch Whisky, Textiles, Timber, Water, Maintenance of all roads and pavements (except trunk roads which are the responsibility of, Supporting socially necessary bus services, Protection of vulnerable children and adults, Licensing of taxis and private hire vehicles, Licensing of window cleaners, market traders, scrap metal merchants, and street hawkers, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 01:00. 45,000 people are employed by electronics and electronics-related firms, accounting for 12% of manufacturing output. In 2014, over 15.5 million overnight tourism trips were taken in Scotland, for which visitor expenditure totalled £4.8 billion. The country you love needs you. The waters surrounding Scotland are some of the richest in Europe. Unfortunately, tourism can also be a source of problems, especially if it is not managed well. It is estimated that the industry employs around 100,000 workers (or 6% of the working population) of Scotland.  The water industry is regulated by the Water Industry Commission for Scotland. There is also a dynamic and fast growing electronics design and development industry, based around links between the universities and indigenous companies. Several universities are playing an important role by producing research in Computing Science, including the University of Edinburgh's School of Informatics. a  The trade expanded towards long-established maritime bases for Scottish trade at Bruges and then Veere in the Low Countries and at ElblÄ g and GdaÅsk in the Baltic. With the growth of oil exploration during that time, as well as the ancillary industries needed to support it, the city of Aberdeen became the UK's centre of the North Sea Oil Industry, with the port and harbour serving many oil fields off shore. 'Public' schools in England offered their services openly (to the public) rather than under running under the patronage of the Church. The tourism sector in Scotland supports the jobs of 218,000 people across over 14,900 diverse businesses Worth £4.1 billion Our tourism industry contributes £4.1 billion to the economy every year 8.3% work in tourism Excluding trade with the rest of the United Kingdom. Other aspects of economic and fiscal policies remain a matter for Westminster - including currency, corporate tax, energy policy, foreign policy. The description is composed by our digital data assistant. Unemployment became a serious problem, especially in those areas where major industries had declined. Domestic touristâ¦ The tourism economy and tourism related industries in Scotland support c. 196,000 in 2014 mainly in the service sector accounting for around 7.7% of employment in Scotland. The sector is an important part of the Scottish economy, employing more than 200,000 workers and hosting millions of visitors every year from all over the world. With millions of visitors each year, the economic contribution they bring and the way they spend their time here â thereâs a lot about Scotlandâs ever-evolving tourism industry that deserves to be examined and understood.  In contrast, overseas residents made 2.7 million visits to Scotland, staying 21.5 million nights and spending Â£1.8 billion. This site is no longer being updated. Scottish-based companies have strengths in information systems, defence, electronics, instrumentation and semiconductors. The economy of Scotland had an estimated nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of up to Â£170 billion in 2018. , In modern times, knitwear and tweed are seen as traditional cottage industries but names like Pringle have given Scottish knitwear and apparel a presence on the international market. Prestwick Airport also has large air freight operations and cargo handling facilities. Unlike in England, water infrastructure remains property of Scottish Water, however metering and billing of business customers is now undertaken by water supply companies. National Insurance rates and bands are reserved as is the National Insurance Fund.  Agriculture gained after the union, and standards remained high. It should also be noted that the Scottish figures exclude offshore oil revenue. In January 2015 the Scottish Government placed a moratorium on granting consents for unconventional oil and gas extraction. Scotland is endowed with some of the best energy resources in Europe, and is a net exporter of electricity, with a generating capacity of 10.1GW primarily from oil, gas and nuclear generation.. It is generally argued that this has been in response to increasing globalisation and competition from low cost producers across the world, which has eroded Scotland's comparative advantage in such industries over the later half of the 20th century. This is especially disappointing when we consider the huge contribution of outbound travel to the economy of Scotland, which amounts to nearly £2 billion every year in â¦ The governments which involve themselves in Scotland's economy are largely the UK Government (responsible for reserved matters) and the Scottish Government (responsible for devolved matters) via HM Treasury. As well as its contribution to Scotlandâs economy, the sustainable tourism sector also provides a number of wider benefits to Scotland. . The Scottish Government recently established the Scottish National Investment Bank whose aim is to provide finance to small and medium sized enterprises to grow and develop. Quarterly economic activity within the countries of the UK (England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland) and the nine English regions (North East, North West, Yorkshire and The Humber, East Midlands, West Midlands, East of England, London, South East, South West).  This will allow health and environmental impact tests to be carried out as well as a full public consultation to allow every interested organisation and any member of the public to input their views.  Equally, there are 21 areas in the rest of the UK where the GDP per person is under â¬20,000: 4.5 million (8.5% of English) live in these deprived English districts. As Scotland's landmass is immense, and the population sparse, the most populated areas have been focused on for 4G connection; mainly the Central Belt regions, Aberdeen, Dundee and Inverness. Many roads in the Highlands are single track, with passing places. The invention of the hot blast for smelting iron (1828) had revolutionised the iron industry, and Scotland became a centre for engineering, shipbuilding, and locomotive construction. Whisky is probably the best known of Scotland's manufactured products. The entire period between the world wars was one of economic depression, of which the worldwide Great Depression of 1929â1939 was the most acute phase.  A modest amount of opencast coal mining continues. Edinburgh is the financial services centre of Scotland, with many large financial firms based there. Many former council houses are now run by Housing Associations while others were sold to the tenant under the right-to-buy at a heavy discount. Since 1979, management of the UK economy (including Scotland) has followed a broadly laissez-faire approach. The country can be roughly divided into three areas â lowlands, Highlands and islands. Tourism, as a whole, is an important industry for the Scottish economy, contributing around £6 billion, which is equal to 5% of Scotlandâs Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Gas infrastructure in Scotland is owned and operated by SGN. Retail banking services to individuals followed in the 19th century, on the trustee savings bank model pioneered by Rev. The Scottish Parliament has full control of Income tax, land taxes, property tax and local taxation and some fiscal policy. Council-run schools in Scotland were traditionally referred to as 'public schools' and many Victorian-era schoolhouses to this day have 'public' inscribed on their exterior. Please go to GOV.SCOT. Once here, the country's road, rail and ferry network provides good access to all regions and to our many great visitor destinations. Despite increasing competition from low-cost textile producers in SE Asia and the Indian subcontinent, textiles in Scotland is still a major employer with a workforce of around 22,000. NHS Scotland is a major employer with just under 140,000 whole-time equivalent (WTE) staff. Manufacturing in Scotland has shifted its focus, with heavy industries such as shipbuilding and iron and steel declining in their importance and contribution to the economy.  Scottish fund management centres have a major presence in areas such as pensions, property funds and investment trusts, as well as in retail and private client markets. Scotlandâs relative position has deteriorated a little since 2014, dropping one place to 16th, but is still just ahead of the UK (17th). By the 1980s there were nine members of the Association of Scottish Life Offices (the counterpart of the Life Offices Association) but these have demutualised and most were taken over. In such areas, the land is generally flatter, coastal, and the climate less harsh, and more suited to cultivation. The economic effects of the Union on Scotland were negative in the short term[Scotland's debts were taken over by England], due to an increase in unpopular forms of taxation (such as the Malt Tax in 1712) and the introduction of duties on imports, which the Scottish exchequer had previously been neglectful in enforcing on most trade goods. VisitScotland also works closely with businesses, local authorities and other tourism stakeholders to maximise the economic benefits of tourism to Scotland. The last deep-coal mine was at Longannet on the Firth of Forth. , Excluding intra UK trade, the European Union and the United States constitute the largest markets for Scotland's exports. Scotland is a well-developed tourist destination with attractions ranging from unspoilt countryside, mountains and abundant history. Other major industries include banking and financial services, construction, education, entertainment, biotechnology, transport equipment, oil and gas, whisky, and tourism. Register to receive email news alerts, daily digest, weekly roundup or Topic newsletters. The natural environment is a key tourism asset with our scenery and landscapes being the highest motivation for people to visit Scotland. Centred primarily on the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, the financial services industry in Scotland grew by over 35% between 2000 and 2005. Tourism is now one of Scotlandâs most vibrant sectors, the money it generates plays a vital part in Scotlandâs economic growth. Furthermore, the textiles industry is the seventh-largest exporter in Scotland accounting for over 3% of all Scottish manufactured products. Latest figures indicate total overnight and day visitor expenditure in Scotland was around £8.9 billion in 2015 - this comprised of expenditure from overnight visitors of £4.9 billion and expenditure by day visitors of £3.9 billion.  A further 150,000 WTE staff work in social care and services. Tourism spend worth £10.5bn Tourism contributes significantly to the Scottish economy and is vital to the economic performance and employment of towns, cities, regions and rural communities across the length and breadth of Scotland. These are National Statistics, derived from the International Passenger Survey (IPS). The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Scotland in 2013 was $248.5 billion including revenue generated from North Sea oil and gas. The Scottish Parliament also controls the areas of Health and Education policy. It closed in 2016. The densest network of roads and railways is concentrated in the Central Lowlands of the country where around 70% of the population live. Scotland's history in manufacturing is being transferred into the software sector and this is attracting companies from around the world. Scotland is considered to have an advanced communications infrastructure, similar to other Western nations, and has an extensive framework of developed radio, television, landline and mobile phone, as well as broadband internet networks. Tourism Contributes Around £6BN Of GDP To The Scottish Economy, 5% Of The Total.  German sociologist Max Weber credited the Calvinist "Protestant Ethic", involving hard work and a sense of divine predestination and duty, for the entrepreneurial spirit of the Scots. The âCult of the Picturesqueâ took off. Sullom Voe in Shetland is the site of a major oil terminal, where oil is piped in and transferred to tankers. , Growth was rapid after 1700, as Scottish ports, especially those on the Clyde, began to import tobacco from the American colonies. 36.5% Infrastructure in Scotland is varied in its provision and its quality. This represents about 4.5% of total Scottish GDP. The mining of coal â once a major employer in Scotland has declined in importance since the later half of the 20th century, due to cheaper foreign coal and the exhaustion of many seams. The number of domestic tourism visits made by Great Britain residents to Scotland has fallen by around 11% between 2006 (12.9 million) and 2016 (11.5 million). In 2011, visitor spending was £1.16 billion, compared to â¦ The civil justice system also has many differences from England and Wales with many differences in Contract Law, Property Law, and Family Law. It is estimated that tourism accounts for 5% of Scotland's GDP. The motorway and trunk road network is principally centred on the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow and connecting them to other major concentrations of population, and is vitally important to the economy of Scotland. The rail network is primarily centred on the central belt and is used principally as a means of public transport, with some freight movements â for example from the port facilities at Grangemouth and Hunterston Ore Terminal. The Department for Work and Pensions are responsible for determining eligibility criteria, processing and paying benefits and the development of Universal Credit. The Carron Company established its ironworks at Falkirk in 1759, initially using imported ore but later using locally sourced Ironstone. The figures below, noting the economic position of Scottish regions in terms of GDP and GDP per capita, come from Eurostat (2013) and are denoted in Euros. There was a significant presence of global players like National Semiconductor and Motorola. About 13,340 kmÂ² of land (about 15% of the total) is forested.  Principal whisky producing areas include Speyside and the Isle of Islay, where there are eight distilleries providing a major source of employment. This led to smaller firms strengthening links with the academic community and substantial, industry-specific retraining programmes for the workforce. Since the Acts of Union 1707, Scotland's economy has been closely aligned with the economy of the rest of the United Kingdom (UK) and England has historically been its main trading partner. Scotland still conducts the majority of its trade within the UK: in 2017, Scotland's exports totalled Â£81.4 billion, of which Â£48.9 billion (60%) was with constituent nations of the UK, Â£14.9 billion with the rest of the European Union (EU), and Â£17.6 billion with other parts of the world. 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